R "cannot find function" when trying to use packages

Hi! I'm using a PC with Windows 10. I keep running into this error. For example:

Error in diversity(trees, index = "shannon") : **
** could not find function "diversity"

this was when I was doing something very simple with the vegan package.This has also happened multiple times with ggplot2, ex.

Error in ggplot2(data = data, aes(x = MovieLens.Rating)) : **
** could not find function "ggplot2"

Even why I was trying to install rtools, it came up:

Error in install.Rtools(choose_version = TRUE, check = FALSE, GUI = TRUE, : **
** could not find function "install.Rtools"

I know to re-load packages such as vegan and ggplot2 every time I open a new R session, and I have the other pre-requisite packages loaded before I execute my code (eg. permute for vegan).

Also, I tried running this line of code I found while scouring the internet for help

ggplot2 : : ggplot(mtcars, ggplot2 : : aes(wt, mpg)) + ggplot2 : : geom_point()

and it produced a nice plot, so at least ggplot2 was actually loading.

Any ideas? Has anyone run into this before?

I think you need ti be using the library() function to load a given (installed) packages namespace to save you typing explicit names like ggplot2::ggplot() if you did library(ggplot2) you could access ggplot as simply ggplot()

That is usually how I load packages, using the packages tab or just typing the code manually. Hasn’t worked for me unfortunately with this error.

You need to be aware of scope. In case you can't find a function locally, it's in another environment, just look there, like ggplot2::ggplot. It's as easy as that.

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