Perform some statistical analysis on a matrix to get p-values?

There is a lot more happening here. I really am not entirely sure if you have independence etc given this averaging. I'd also actually need to see your data with transformations in raw. Consider a reprex: FAQ: How to do a minimal reproducible example ( reprex ) for beginners

You wouldn't want to compare a single cell against all other values in the matrix as you'd be running close to 143 tests with that single cell. I am sure there is a field specific approach in how to determine significance or test this. A two independent samples t-test would already make more sense where you compare one group who received a certain dosage against another group who received a different dosage and then work with H0: There is no significant difference and then H1: There is.