Creating a graph from non numerical data

Dataset has several penguin species and no numerical value related to that. I need to be able to make a graph representing prevalence of different species. I’ve made a table with the species count but how can I now make this into a graph of some sort?

Here you can find some options

If you need more specific help, please provide a proper REPRoducible EXample (reprex) illustrating your issue.

I don’t have ggplot2 available, we’re only allowed to use the standard R given to us for the statistics unit.
I will try to get an example

With more effort the graphs below could be approximated in {base} or {lattice} but shouldn't be used at all in preference to a simple table.


census <- 
# the right way
Var1 Freq
Adelie 152
Chinstrap 68
Gentoo 124
``` kableExtra::kable(table(penguins$species))

some wrong ways

too much syntax

pander::pander(penguins |> dplyr::group_by(species) |> dplyr::count())
species n
Adelie 152
Chinstrap 68
Gentoo 124
# too misleading b/c visual perception exaggerates the differences

# example adapted from
ggplot(penguins, aes("",fill = species)) +
  geom_bar(position="fill") +
  ) +
  coord_polar(theta="y") +
  labs(x=NULL, y=NULL) +
  scale_fill_brewer(palette="Pastel1") +


same problems

census <- penguins |> dplyr::group_by(species) |> dplyr::count()
p <- ggplot(census) + theme_minimal()
p + geom_col(aes(n,species, group = species, fill = species))


only slightly better because adds nothing to table

recipe from 3.10 Making a Cleveland Dot Plot | R Graphics Cookbook, 2nd edition

ggplot(census, aes(n,species)) +
geom_point(size = 3) + # Use a larger dot
theme_bw() +
panel.grid.major.x = element_blank(),
panel.grid.minor.x = element_blank(),
panel.grid.major.y = element_line(colour = "grey60", linetype = "dashed")


Created on 2023-01-21 with [reprex v2.0.2](

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