How to use R to determine if a value is statistically LARGER than an average?

The short answer: yes, there is. Are you familiar with a t-test? I assume that's what you're referring to when you say you don't want something 'statistically different' but rather significantly greater. The thing you might be looking for is a one-sided t-test. However, that's fallen out of fashion in the scientific community because it can inflate your false-positive rate when combined with other data analysis practices.

If you have more questions, I can be more helpful if you include a reprex.