First of all, please read FAQ on how to provide a reprex (reproducible example): FAQ: What's a reproducible example (`reprex`) and how do I create one?

As for your question, I guess you need something like the following.

```
library(tidyverse)
library(rstatix)
set.seed(123)
df <- tibble(ID = rep(1:3, times = 3),
Study_day = rep(1:3, each = 3),
A = rnorm(9, mean = 50, sd = 10),
B = c(rnorm(3, mean = 20, sd = 5),
rnorm(3, mean = 50, sd = 5),
rnorm(3, mean = 90, sd = 10)))
# As your data is not in tidy format, you first need to tidy it
df <- df %>%
pivot_longer(cols = A:B,
names_to = "Population",
values_to = "Value")
# Now you can run t-test on your data
t_test_results <- df %>%
# As pairwise_t_test() does not work with functions there 2+ variables
# on the right side, you have to combine them in a single variable
mutate(groups = interaction(Population, Study_day)) %>%
# As you don't need comparison between populations use gruoping
group_by(Population) %>%
# run t-test. Please check ?pairwise_t_test for additional arguments
# perhaps you'll want to add `paired = TRUE`
pairwise_t_test(formula = Value ~ groups)
# As you want to compare day 28 vs day 7 and day 28 vs day 0
# you may want to filter out all day 7 vs day 0
t_test_results %>%
filter(str_detect(group2, pattern = "3"))
```